There are two belief
systems guiding educational practice today. One is prevalent among those
who do not work in the field of education. The other is
predominant among education professionals.
1. Academic Achievement
is the most important purpose of education. The public, legislatures,
governors and the No Child Left Behind legislation (NCLB) all support
this position. This asserts that schools are best evaluated in terms of
how their students perform rather than by what teachers are doing. The
selection of instructional method is determined through an examination
of their effectiveness in terms of academic achievement.
2. Learning in which
progressive teaching methods designed to enhance "learning" are endorsed
by Education schools and the national organizations that support them.
These methods are primarily child-centered and may not only fail to
increase academic achievement, they may actually degrade it. Instead of
teachers teaching students, they believe that it is the role of a good
teacher to create the proper environment for learning and if this done
properly, students will "learn" by constructing their own meaning.
"Learning," unlike academic achievement, is evaluated in terms of what
the teachers is doing. It does not require an examination of what is
happening to the students in the classroom.
to learn more.
Several features characterize student-centered learning. Students have
opportunities and increased responsibility to identify their own
learning needs, locate learning resources, and construct their own
knowledge based on those needs (rather than having a standard or
identical knowledge base imparted to all students).
Bumpy Road to Student-Centered Instruction
Study: Student-Centered Learning Ineffective
Outcome-Based Education (OBE)
The desired outcome is selected first and the curriculum,
instructional materials and assessments are created to support the
Outcome-Based Education: Miracle Cure or
When states began efforts to institute outcome-based
education programs, they turned the crucial task of defining outcomes
over to the very education establishment figures most threatened by the
process. Having adopted in principle the focus on results, the educators
present a list of outcomes that emphasize values, attitudes, and
behavior and often reflect quasi-political or ideologically correct
Core Curriculum is the course of study, which is deemed central and
usually made mandatory for all students of a school or school system.
Core curricula are often instituted, at the primary and secondary
levels, by school boards, Departments of Education, or other
administrative agencies charged with overseeing education.
Learning to read and spell is just like learning to
talk. All language is naturally acquired, according to whole-language
devotees. Reading is analogous to listening; children's brains are
focused on meaning as language is processed, not on the structure or
form of language. To focus instead on structure and form is unnatural
and unnecessary. Children will extract the structure and form of print
if they are exposed to it sufficiently in the context of meaning-making
activities, just as they have extracted the rules of phonology and
syntax in oral language without any formal instruction. The acquisition
of the alphabetic code is a minor concern because it will happen if
children have a purpose for learning it.
Dr. G. Reid Lyon - Converging Evidence - Reading
Research - What It Takes To Read
What’s Wrong with Whole Language?
Character education involves teaching children about basic human
values including honesty, kindness, generosity, courage, freedom,
equality, and respect.
The goal is to raise children to become morally responsible,
self-disciplined citizens. Problem solving, decision making, and
conflict resolution are important parts of developing moral character.
Through role playing and discussions, students can see that their
decisions affect other people and things.
Multiculturalism is a policy that emphasizes the unique
characteristics of different cultures, especially as they relate to one
another in receiving nations.
Tech Prep Education
Tech Prep Education is a 4+2 , 3+2 or a 2+2 planned sequence of
study in a technical field beginning as early as the ninth year of
school. The sequence extends through two years of postsecondary
occupational education or an apprenticeship program of at least two
years following secondary instruction, and culminates in an associate
degree or certificate.
Tech Prep is an important school-to-work transition strategy, helping
all students make the connection between school and employment.
Paideia is an educational program presented by Mortimer Adler and
the Paideia Group in 1982. It is designed for all students in order to
better educate our future citizens. The goals are to prepare students:
▪ to earn a living
▪ to be a citizen
▪ to be a lifelong learner
Paideia is a dynamic approach to restructuring schools to foster more
active learning and a better use of teacher and student time. The
curriculum stresses key ideas, basic skills and significant facts.
▪ Socratic teaching in seminars with primary sources (e.g.,
documents, essays, speeches, stories, art and math and
science experiments) for understanding
▪ Coaching sessions for development of specific skills (e.g.,
reading, writing, listening, analyzing, computing, and
▪ Didactic instruction for recall of important facts and